Kano NEWMAP Project has commenced on the Installation of Hydromet Station under the Hadejia Jama’are and Komadugu river basins. Attached with this project there will be Training and Commission at the end of the project. The World Bank has initiated this project based on the fact that Hydrological and meteorological (or “hydromet”) hazards are responsible for 90% of total disaster losses worldwide. With population growth, rapid urbanization and climate change, this is projected to become more severe. Hydromet services provide real-time weather, water, early warning, and climate information products to end users, based on weather, water and climate data.
In the Transformative action taken by World Bank, Kano NEWMAP Project has joined the action plan in the located at;
1. Hadejia Jama’are River Basin
According to Department of Geography, University of Lagos, Nigeria’s study investigates the hydrological fluxes and land-use dynamics of the Hadejia-Jama’are basin in north-central Nigeria for sustainable agricultural development. The empirical Thornthwaite model was used to determine the potential evapotranspiration (PE) loss taking into account the land-use dynamics obtained from change detection using Landsat TM of 1986 and 2006. Using the results obtained from landuse dynamics, multiplying factors were determined and future water balances computed for high and medium emission climate change (HCC; MCC) scenarios for 50 and 100 years. The results reveal that the basin is currently recording a water deficit and that this will increase by 0.52% for the 50-year MCC, 0.53% for the 100-year MCC, 7.25% for the 50-year HCC and 37.82% for the 100-year HCC in Nguru, relative to the 2006 water balance. Sustainable agricultural practices and appropriate dam optimization techniques to ensure eco-friendly developments were recommended.
The Hadejia-Jama’are River System (H-JRS) ecosystems and the human food production systems and livelihoods they support are threatened by the phenomenon of climate change, which over the years has resulted in a high level of variability and uncertainty in the annual flood regime (Yahya et al., 2010). The area faces further challenges due to the persistent poverty of its population, which is basically rural, the degradation of its natural resources, the loss of its biodiversity and the consequent climate change brought about by increase in temperature and evapotranspiration which compound the water stress (World Bank, 2010). Farmers in the area have, over the years, developed several adaptation strategies such as flood recession farming, but efforts to improve livelihoods and address the impact of high-level variation and variability in the hydro-climatic elements were institutionalized by the construction of the Tiga (storage capacity: 1492 × 106 m3 , 1992) and Challawa Gorge (972 × 106 m3 , 1992) dams. The agricultural activities within the H-JRS are shaped by and dependent on the timing, magnitude, duration and frequency of flow patterns as dictated by the two dams (Geos, 2001). The dams control 80% of the flows into the Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands. The primary function of Tiga Dam, is to store water for the Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) scheme. Overwhelmingly, the losses in environmental productivity are due to alterations of natural flows and fragmentation of rivers and their flood plains due to dams and water diversions. By constricting the flows, these irrigation dams reduce the extent of the inundation of the flood plain and wetlands during the wet season and increase it during the dry season. These desiccated lands that were formerly wetted on a seasonal basis for recession agriculture are now waterlogged low-lying lands, which no longer experience their natural dryingout cycle. Consequently, there is a reduction in the area inundated, a decline in the groundwater tables and a general shortage of water in the lower part of the basin (IUCN and HNWCP, 1999). Also, this change in flow patterns has created conditions that have caused a massive invasion of the exotic Typha weed into the waterways, which has greatly reduced the areas that can be used for agriculture, and has caused massive siltation of the waterways, that result in permanent standing water and poor drainage (Fortnam & Oguntola, 2004). Yet these water projects also provide important hydropower, water supply and flood control benefits. Therefore, the study investigates the hydrological fluxes and land-use dynamics of the Hadejia-Jama’are basin in north-central Nigeria for sustainable agricultural development.
2. Komadugu River Basin
Komadugu Yobe River, also spelled Komadougou Yobé River, river of western Africa, a tributary of Lake Chad formed by the union of the Hadejia and Komadugu Gana rivers. Situated between Nigeria and Niger, it forms the border between the two countries for some 95 miles (150 km) and flows a total of 200 miles (320 km) to empty into the western end of Lake Chad.
WATER AND NATURE INITIATIVE (WANI) CASE STUDY shows that
The Komadugu Yobe Basin (KYB) covers a total area of 148,000 km2 divided between north-east Nigeria and south-east Niger with 95% of the basin’s water in Nigeria. The basin is drained by two main river sub-systems: the Komadugu Yobe and the Komadugu Gana, with the Yobe River flowing into Lake Chad. KYB is a sub-catchment of the larger Lake Chad Basin, representing approximately 35% of the Lake Chad Basin, shared by six Nigerian states (see Figure 1) and four other countries (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad and Niger). KYB is of strategic national and international importance.
Ecosystem degradation and livelihood vulnerability inappropriate land and water management practices in the basin have changed the seasonal flow to a perennial flow regime. This has resulted in the invasion of reeds and weeds such as Typha in some of the river reaches, which block streams and flooding of channels causing changes in the wetland ecosystems that communities have historically relied upon to deliver regular water services. With the exception of the year 2001, natural flooding of the Yobe River floodplains has been very limited in recent years and irregular and low flows in the Yobe River have affected the small and large scale irrigation schemes along the rivers with many of them now abandoned. Fishing, farming and herding livelihoods have been adversely affected and the scarcity of water has led to conflict over the available resources.